双语|谭宝新立法:小企业和个人贷款成本有望降低?!Better Deals on Loans?

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双语|谭宝新立法:小企业和个人贷款成本有望降低?!Better Deals on Loans?
前言
澳大利亚银行业正在发生一些改变,焦点在于透明度和数据报告。问题在于,不管是对消费者还是对宏观经济而言,这些改变会不会有成果,以及需要多久才能看到成果?反对党工党在持续对政府施压,让政府实现更多的成果,尤其是通过议会辩论和政策提议,来为收入较低的消费者提供更公平的结果。这些收入较低的消费者总体上付出的信贷成本更高,尤其是利率和贷款相关费用占贷款数额的比例。

另一方面,谭宝联盟政府正在努力通过《强制综合信用报告法》,保证澳大利亚人贷款时获得更优惠的利率。

 改变市场规则
不管是对于消费者还是贷款方来说,这都是一项重大的改变。这项立法将会促进贷款方之间的竞争,让家庭和小企业更容易获得资金。但在我们看到实际的成果之前,这只是希望而已。《强制综合信用报告法》将使贷款机构能够获得更深入和丰富的数据库,鼓励新成立的贷款机构和小型贷款机构,包括创新金融科技公司,吸引那些拥有良好信用记录小型企业和零售客户。希望这些贷款机构不再歧视信用记录太少或者太多的借贷者。

金融科技吸引了很多的注意力,尤其是媒体,但使用金融科技的消费者仍然很少。另一个令人担心的趋势是,一旦某种金融科技有成功的希望,银行就想亲自接手,甚至买断它们然后将其撤出市场。这种自由市场行为虽然是合法的,但完全不符合这项立法的精神。

信用报告数据共享
还有一个重要的方面就是,不只是消费者的负面数据会被共享,积极的数据也会被共享,这样对消费者的信用评估就会更加公正。比如,除了欠款记录,延迟付款和成功的偿还记录也会显示给贷款机构,这样他们能够对贷款人的信用记录作出更完整的评价。在实际中这个规则会造成怎样的结果还有待考察。综合信用报告并不是澳大利亚管理框架中的一个新原则。从2014年开始,贷款机构就有能力自愿共享综合信用信息,但很多机构都没有这么做。那些拥有大量重要数据的大银行并没有加入其中,这样就没有办法吸引其他的小机构加入这个系统。

《全国消费者信用保护修正案(强制综合信用报告)2018》解决了这个问题。该法案要求四大银行在2018年7月1日之前向信用报告机构提供他们50%的综合信用报告数据,次年增加到100%。

四大银行领头
目前来说,政府并没有打算强制让四大银行以外的机构也实施数据共享。因为一旦大银行开始提供信息,强烈的商业动机会鼓励其他的行业领导者也参与进来,至少理论上是这样的。大银行和信用机构已经准备好实现政府法案里设置的时间和要求,这些要求和目前的行业标准(互惠和数据交换原则,PRDE)非常符合。

政府承认银行业制定PRDE原则的努力,并且希望通过一些规定,有效地对数据分享加以限制。政府会在适当的时候公布这些规定并予以审议。

这项有望成为立法的政府法案还作出了新规定,大银行在提供数据之前要满足信用报告机构的安全规定,以加强消费者数据的安全。该法案还规定,信用报告机构需要满足消费者信用数据储存位置的新规定。

政府了解,关于特殊支付安排的报告,行业游说团体和消费者游说团体持有不同的观点。澳大利亚信息委员办公室公布了一份指南,明确了在现有的法律下这些安排将如何实施。

法律评估
在司法部长的领导下,政府将根据《隐私法》对困境安排的实施进行综合评估。一些行业和消费者游说团体很关心政府将如何对待困境安排,这个综合评估将对他们的担心进行回应,而且会就改革的必要性提出建议。司法部长将会在2018年末完成这项评估。我们只能希望联邦选举将在这项评估完成之后进行。

 如果工党上台
最后的结果可能是工党上台,然后彻底重新审查这项法案。这样银行就有借口推迟法案的实施。
 其他的担忧
和澳大利亚的很多事情一样,立法的过程需要时间和人力。很多人担心的一件事情是,大银行可能会觉得小额贷款无利可图,于是竞争减少,最后可能会增加小客户的贷款成本。这个结果会减少立法的有效性,因为这项立法只适用于大银行。

如果贸易争端或者其他的地缘政治冲突影响到利率、汇率或者现金供应的话,澳大利亚经济是否会持续增长也是一个未知数。

你的观点是什么?谭宝联盟政府争取降低澳大利亚人贷款成本的努力是否会成功?

『原文』

Better Deals on Loans?

Changes in Australian banking are happening with a focus on transparency and data reporting. The big question is will it make a difference and how long will it take to see results, both for the consumer and the economy at large.The Labor Opposition is keeping the pressure on the Government to deliver more, especially through questions and policy initiatives to deliver fairer outcomes for consumers at the lower income spectrum that generally have paid much more proportionally in terms of cost of credit, particularly interest rates and loan establishment costs compared to the size of the loan.

The Turnbull Coalition Government on the other hand is ensuring Australians can get better deals on their loans by introducing legislation to enact Mandatory Comprehensive Credit Reporting.

Game Changer?

This is game changer for both consumers and lenders. It will boost lending competition and provide Australian households and small businesses with better access to finance. That is the hope, until we see the evidence.

Mandatory Comprehensive Credit Reporting will ensure lenders have access to a deeper, richer set of data, encouraging new entrants and small lenders, including innovative FinTech firms, to compete for small business and retail customers with “positive” credit histories. I hope they will not anymore discount newbies or experience.

FinTech has had a lot of attention, particularly in the media, but consumers that use FinTech are still few. Another worrisome trend is as soon some FinTech show promise, that banks are keen to take them over, even buy them out and take them off the market. Free market actions that are unfortunately legal but not in the spirit of this legislation at all.

Crucial Aspects!

One of the crucial aspects will be that not just negative data about consumers will be exchanged but also positive data that will give a fairer picture for credit assessment. For example, not just defaults, but also late payments and successful repayment will be able to give a more balanced picture. How this will play out is yet to be seen.

Comprehensive credit reporting is not a new principle in Australia’s regulatory framework. Lenders have had the ability to share comprehensive credit information on a voluntary basis since 2014 but have in many cases failed to do so. The major banks have failed to join and provide the critical mass necessary to attract other credit providers into the system.

The National Consumer Credit Protection Amendment (Mandatory Comprehensive Credit Reporting) Bill 2018 resolves this problem by requiring the four major banks to supply 50% of their comprehensive credit reporting data to credit reporting bodies by 1 July 2018, increasing to 100% a year later.

Size Matters?

The Government does not propose to extend the mandate beyond the major banks at this point in time, as once the major banks begin supplying information, strong commercial incentives will encourage other lenders to participate, so the theory goes.

The major banks and credit bureaux are well-placed to meet the timeframes and requirements set out in this Government Bill, which align closely to the existing industry standards, the Principle of Reciprocity and Data Exchange (PRDE).

The Government acknowledges the efforts of industry in developing the PRDE and expects to give effect to restrictions on on-sharing set out in the PRDE through regulations that will be released for consultation in due course.

This Government Bill, aimed to become legislation, also strengthens the security arrangements around consumer data by placing new obligations on the major banks to be satisfied with the security arrangements of the credit reporting bodies prior to supplying data. Credit reporting bodies will also have a new obligation placed on them as to where consumer credit data can be stored.

The Government is aware of the differing views held by industry and consumer advocacy groups around the reporting of special payment arrangements. The Office of the Australian Information Commissioner has published guidance which provides certainty as to how these arrangements will be reported under existing laws.

Enter the AG!

The Attorney‑General (AG) will also be leading a comprehensive review of the operation of hardship arrangements under the Privacy Act. The review will respond to concerns raised by industry and consumer advocacy groups around how hardship arrangements are treated and will make recommendations on whether reforms are required.

The Attorney-General is expected to complete the review by late 2018. We can only hope the Federal Elections will be held after that.

And Labor?

We may well end up with a revisionist Labor Government that could want to re-examine the legislation in full. This would give the banks an excuse to stall its implementation.

More Worries?

Like so many things in Australia, process takes its time and toll. One aspect that worries many observers is that the big banks will consider smaller lending unprofitable, pullout and thus reduce competition which would likely increase the borrowing costs for smaller customers.

This outcome would also defeat the effectiveness of the legislation as it applies only to the big players.

It is also not assured that the Australian economy will be able to sustain growth should trade tensions or other geopolitical upheaval impact interest rates, exchange rates or money supply.

What is your take, will the Turnbull Coalition Government succeed in giving all Australians a chance of better deals on loans?

A.    Yes?

B.    No?

C.    Maybe?

D.    Don’t care?

Please leave a comment!

本文翻译Translator:周吉吉Julie

本文编辑Editor:千千Coco