双语|事先预防还是事后补救?:新州和维州司法改革NSW and VIC regarding access to Justice!

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双语|事先预防还是事后补救?:新州和维州司法改革NSW and VIC regarding access to Justice!
前言
​社会正义以法律和秩序为基础,当然还包括法律的执行。在澳大利亚,正义、法律和秩序是大家普遍认可的价值观,并且有严格的制度捍卫这些价值观。然而,和医学一样,法律也存在事先预防和事后补救孰轻孰重的问题。因为往往由于经济条件或者时间的限制,我们无法同时实现两个目标。从冲突解决和正义的角度来说,维多利亚州似乎更加侧重事先预防,而新南威尔士州更注重事后补救。当然,这只是笔者的观点。下面我们来仔细看看。

新南威尔士州
新州政府将给社区法律中心和民事审判战略投资2200万澳元。此后,新南威尔士州的小企业和个人解决法律问题将会更加容易。

新南威尔士州总司法部长Mark Speakman和财政部长Dominic Perrottet宣布新州政府将为社区法律中心(CLCs)投资1500万澳元,并在今后四年内投资700万澳元用于民事审判改革。

新州司法部发言人表示,为了避免很小的法律问题演变成更大的问题,社区法律中心每年为新南威尔士州的30多个地区、5万多人提供免费法律援助。

当小企业或者弱势群体遇到困难的时候,社区法律中心为他们提供了有力的支持。新的投资代表着政府对于社区法律中心的支持更加坚定了。

1500万澳元的社区法律中心投资将用于实施社区法律中心服务调查。去年,社区法律中心面临资金危机,新南威尔士州政府决定两年里为其投资600万澳元,并每年提供长期政府资助大约650万澳元。

新南威尔士州政府还投资了700万澳元帮助小企业和个人迅速、便宜地解决纠纷,让他们免去上法庭的麻烦。

司法部发言人表示,完善法律体系不只是提供一个便捷的法庭和审判体系,还必须对科技、自助工具和资源进行投资,让人们能够尽快解决问题,节省时间和金钱,减少压力。

新南威尔士州财政部长Perrottet表示,为小企业提供这种实际的帮助有利于经济发展,有利于让新南威尔士州继续保持这么高的经济增长率。

如果运营小企业的人能够点点鼠标或者碰碰屏幕就能解决法律纠纷,那他们能够节省很多打官司的时间,这样就有更多时间促进企业的发展。

更多关于民事审判战略,包括社区法律中心投资的细节将在2018年6月之后宣布。

维多利亚州
在维多利亚州,Andrews工党政府任命Anna Cronin为维多利亚州的公务程序理事长(Red Tape Commissioner)。此前,Cronin就已经是规章改革理事长(Commissioner for Better Regulation)了。

这个新的任命有利于提高这两个职务的效率,让政府在处理和公务程序及规章改革事务的时候,能够提供一步到位的解决方案。

Cronin女士在政策制定方面拥有25年的经验。她曾经在联邦政府中担任经济顾问,还担任过全国农业生产者联盟的主席。她目前是墨尔本大学政府管理学院顾问委员会的成员。

集这两个职务于一身有利于Cronin在一系列制度改革上和企业以及非盈利组织协商,特别是在偏远地区,为政府提出建议,包括减少管理负担。

这两个职务集于一身有利于信息共享,并为企业和非营利组织参与制度改革提供了一个窗口。

这次的职务合并受到了很多工业团体的支持,包括澳大利亚工业团体、维多利亚州工商协会、维多利亚州农业生产者联盟、房地产行业协会和维多利亚州建筑协会。

Matthew Butlin担任了两届公务程序理事长之后,Cronin女士代替了他的职位。

Butlin博士担任公务程序理事长将近三年,为维多利亚州的企业减少了很多政府程序。在担任这一职位之前,他是维多利亚州竞争和效率委员会的主席。

维多利亚州财政部长Tim Pallas表示,我们正在简化制度改革,为企业、非营利组织和社区减少一些繁杂的程序。

Anna Cronin说过:“我很期待有机会能够进一步深化制度改革,和企业以及非盈利组织共同协商,为维多利亚州带来最好的经济效益。”

维多利亚州的小企业部长Philip Dalidakis表示,小企业对于维多利亚州的经济至关重要,州政府希望尽可能地为小企业的所有者和运营者减轻负担。

你如何看待这两种不同的方式?一种是提供更多的资金支持用现有的法律体系解决纠纷,比如新南威尔士州;另一种是通过精简程序,预防法律纠纷的发生,比如维多利亚州。你同意文章开头作者的观点吗?

 

请留言发表你的观点!

 

 『原文』 NSW and VIC regarding access to Justice!

Justice is based on law and order, and importantly including its enforcement. In Australia these are shared values with strong institutions defending them. However as in health there is the option, to set priorities, of concentrating more on prevention or treatment, if both is not possible due to economic restrictions or time lines. In terms of dispute resolution and justice VIC seems to go more for prevention and NSW more for treatment, but this is just your journalists’ opinion. Here are some details.

NSW approach?

NSW small businesses and individuals will be able to solve their legal problems more easily with more than $22 million in funding for Community Legal Centres and a Civil Justice Strategy that will improve the way small businesses resolve legal disputes.

NSW Attorney General (AG) Mark Speakman and Treasurer Dominic Perrottet announced the NSW Liberals and Nationals Government has committed more than $15 million for Community Legal Centres (CLCs) and more than $7m for civil justice initiatives over the next four years.

CLCs provide free legal help to more than 50,000 people a year at more than 30 locations across NSW to prevent simple legal problems snowballing into serious issues, AG Speakman said.

This funding represents more funding certainty and significant increase in NSW Government funding for CLCs to continue that often life-changing work supporting small business and some of the most disadvantaged people in our community when their chips are down.

More than $15 million funding for CLCs will go towards implementation of the Review into Community Legal Centre Services. This funding includes $3 million already committed last year after the NSW Government stepped in to save CLCs from an imminent funding crisis with a $6 million funding boost over two years and is in addition to long term core NSW Government funding of approximately $6.5 million every year.

The NSW Government is also investing $7 million over four years to help small businesses and individuals resolve their disputes quickly, cheaply and fairly without setting foot in a courtroom.

Access to justice is not simply about providing an accessible court and tribunal system. It’s about investing in technology, self-help tools and resources to enable people to sort out problems earlier, saving time, money and stress, said AG Speakman.

NSW Treasurer Perrottet said providing this practical help to small businesses made economic sense and would help NSW continue its record of economic growth.

If small business operators can resolve their legal disputes at the click of a mouse or a tap of a touch screen, less time will be spent fighting legal battles and there’ll be more time to concentrate on the bottom line.

More detail about the Civil Justice Strategy, including funding for CLCs, will be announced after June, 2018.

VIC approach?

In VIC the Andrews Labor Government has appointed Anna Cronin as Victoria’s Red Tape Commissioner, bringing the office together with Ms Cronin’s existing role as the Commissioner for Better Regulation.

The new dual role will improve the effectiveness of both positions, creating a ‘one-stop shop’ for issues regarding red tape and improvements to regulation.

Ms Cronin has more than 25 years’ experience in policy development, including as an economist in the Commonwealth Government and as Chief Executive Officer of the National Farmers’ Federation. She currently sits on the Advisory Board of the Melbourne School of Government at the University of Melbourne.

The combined role will enable the Commissioner to advise government on a broad range of regulatory reforms, including those which reduce regulatory burden, in close consultation with businesses and not-for-profits, particularly in regional areas.

Bringing together the Office of the Commissioner for Better Regulation and the Red Tape Unit will improve information sharing and provide a single point of entry for businesses and not-for-profit organisations dealing with regulatory issues.

The amalgamation comes off the back of consultation with key industry groups, including the Australian Industry Group, Victorian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Victorian Farmers Federation, Housing Industry Association and Master Builders Association of Victoria.

Ms Cronin replaces Dr Matthew Butlin as the Red Tape Commissioner, following the completion of Dr Matthew Butlin’s second term in the role.

As the Red Tape Commissioner for almost three years, Dr Butlin played a key role in reducing the red tape burden for Victorian businesses. Prior to his appointment, he was Chair of the Victorian Competition and Efficiency Commission.

VIC Treasurer Tim Pallas said, we’re streamlining the delivery of regulatory reform to cut red tape for businesses, not for profit organisations and the community.

Victorian Red Tape Commissioner Anna Cronin is quoted as saying, I’m looking forward to the opportunity to further progress regulatory reform, in consultation with businesses and not-for-profits, to achieve the best outcomes for the Victorian economy.

VIC Minister for Small Business Philip Dalidakis said that small businesses are crucial to Victoria’s economy, and the State Government wants to make life as easy as possible for small business owners and operators.

What is your impression of the two different approaches, one more money to support the existing legal system to resolve disputes i.e. NSW, the other more prevention by reducing points of contention, red tape i.e. VIC? Do you share your journalists’ opinion expressed at the start of the article?

A.    NSW better?

B.    VIC better?

C.    Needs both?

Please make a comment!

作者Author:Roger Hausmann/Federal Parliamentary Journalist澳洲联邦记者

本文翻译Translator:周吉吉Julie

本文编辑Editor:周吉吉Julie